We, some times in collaboration with others, have introduced the following methods to Norway and Scandinavia, in roughly chronological order.
- Single-electrode voltage clamp recording from brain neurons (1986),
- Patch clamp recording from brain neurons in vitro (1988) and in vivo (2012).
- Two-photon (‘multi-photon’) laser microscopy (collaboration with P.J. Helm and others, 2000-2015)
- Compartmental computational and mathematical models of brain neurons (1997).
- Patch clamp recording from dendrites (2004)
- Dynamic clamp, i.e. coupling a computer model to a live neuron in real time, to mimic, add or cancel intrinsic conductances in neurons (2005).
- Predictive computational modelling, i.e. extracting specific, unexpected predictions from computer simulations followed by experimental testing (2006).
- Dual and trippel simultaneous patch clamp recordings from dendrites, soma and axon with 2-3 electrodes in whole-cell configuration on the same neuron (2009)
- Real-time laser scanning microscopy with Nipkow disk (2010)
- Patch clamp recording from axons: axon terminals (2011), and axon blebs (2012).
- nTMS-hdEEG (navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, combined with high-density ElectroEncephaloGrapy) in humans, for measuring the Perturbational Complexity Index (PCI) that is used for objective assessment of conscuousness (2015).
We also use the following methods in our group:
- Optical photolysis (“uncageing”) of “caged” compounds (glutamate, cyclic AMP, calcium chelators, etc.)
- Genetically engineered viral vectors for targeted genetic manipulation of neurons (AAV, ; produced in our lab).
- Transgenic mice (produced elsewhere)
- Optogenetic manipulation of neurons (ChR2)
- Sharp-electrode intracellular recordings
- Local Field Potential (LFP) extracellular recordings
- Behavioral analysis (open field, water maze, cross maze, rotarod etc.)