Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhances internal source monitoring abilities in healthy participants
16. sep. 2021 02:00
Source monitoring refers to the ability to identify the origin of a memory, for example, whether you remember saying something or thinking about it, and confusions of these sources have been associated with the experience of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). Both AVHs and source confusions are reported to originate from dysfunctional brain activations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the superior temporal gyrus (STG); specifically, it is assumed that a hypoactive PFC and a hyperactive STG...
Increased rates of respiratory disease in schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis including 619,214 individuals with schizophrenia and 52,159,551 controls
14. sep. 2021 02:00
INTRODUCTION: Despite respiratory disease being a major cause of excess mortality in people with schizophrenia, the prevalence of respiratory conditions in this population is poorly defined. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to establish the prevalence and association of respiratory diseases in people with schizophrenia.
Lessons Learned From Neuroimaging Studies of Copy Number Variants: A Systematic Review
12. sep. 2021 02:00
Pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) and aneuploidies alter gene dosage and are associated with neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Brain mechanisms mediating genetic risk for neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders remain largely unknown, but there is a rapid increase in morphometry studies of CNVs using T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging. Studies have been conducted one mutation at a time, leaving the field with a...
Risk and protective factors for mental disorders beyond genetics: an evidence-based atlas
10. sep. 2021 02:00
Decades of research have revealed numerous risk factors for mental disorders beyond genetics, but their consistency and magnitude remain uncer-tain. We conducted a "meta-umbrella" systematic synthesis of umbrella reviews, which are systematic reviews of meta-analyses of individual studies, by searching international databases from inception to January 1, 2021. We included umbrella reviews on non-purely genetic risk or protective factors for any ICD/DSM mental disorders, applying an established...
Plasma Levels of the Cytokines B Cell-Activating Factor (BAFF) and A Proliferation-Inducing Ligand (APRIL) in Schizophrenia, Bipolar, and Major Depressive Disorder: A Cross Sectional, Multisite Study
9. sep. 2021 02:00
CONCLUSIONS: These results show aberrant levels of BAFF and APRIL and association with psychotic symptoms in patients with SCZ and BIP. This suggest that dysregulation of the TNF system, mediated by BAFF and APRIL, is involved in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders.
A meta-analysis of deep brain structural shape and asymmetry abnormalities in 2,833 individuals with schizophrenia compared with 3,929 healthy volunteers via the ENIGMA Consortium
9. sep. 2021 02:00
Schizophrenia is associated with widespread alterations in subcortical brain structure. While analytic methods have enabled more detailed morphometric characterization, findings are often equivocal. In this meta-analysis, we employed the harmonized ENIGMA shape analysis protocols to collaboratively investigate subcortical brain structure shape differences between individuals with schizophrenia and healthy control participants. The study analyzed data from 2,833 individuals with schizophrenia and...
Characterising the shared genetic determinants of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and risk-taking
9. sep. 2021 02:00
Increased risk-taking is a central component of bipolar disorder (BIP) and is implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ). Risky behaviours, including smoking and alcohol use, are overrepresented in both disorders and associated with poor health outcomes. Positive genetic correlations are reported but an improved understanding of the shared genetic architecture between risk phenotypes and psychiatric disorders may provide insights into underlying neurobiological mechanisms. We aimed to characterise the...
A genome-wide association study with 1,126,563 individuals identifies new risk loci for Alzheimer's disease
8. sep. 2021 02:00
Late-onset Alzheimer's disease is a prevalent age-related polygenic disease that accounts for 50-70% of dementia cases. Currently, only a fraction of the genetic variants underlying Alzheimer's disease have been identified. Here we show that increased sample sizes allowed identification of seven previously unidentified genetic loci contributing to Alzheimer's disease. This study highlights microglia, immune cells and protein catabolism as relevant to late-onset Alzheimer's disease, while...
Replication studies for undergraduate theses to improve science and education
8. sep. 2021 02:00
Development of white matter microstructure and executive functions during childhood and adolescence: a review of diffusion MRI studies
7. sep. 2021 02:00
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) provides indirect measures of white matter microstructure that can be used to make inferences about structural connectivity within the brain. Over the last decade, a growing literature of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have documented relationships between dMRI indices and cognitive development. In this review, we provide a brief overview of dMRI methods and how they can be used to study white matter and connectivity and review the extant...
Publisert 25. feb. 2014 11:43 - Sist endret 8. feb. 2019 06:31