Publikasjoner

  • Asphyxia at birth affects brain structure in patients on the schizophrenia-bipolar disorder spectrum and healthy participants.

    Asphyxia at birth affects brain structure in patients on the schizophrenia-bipolar disorder spectrum and healthy participants.

    Psychol Med. 2020 Aug 10;:1-10

    Authors: Wortinger LA, Engen K, Barth C, Andreassen OA, Nordbø Jørgensen K, Agartz I

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Uncertainty exists about what causes brain structure alterations associated with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). Whether a history of asphyxia-related obstetric complication (ASP) - a common but harmful condition for neural tissue - contributes to variations in adult brain structure is unclear. We investigated ASP and its relationship to intracranial (ICV), global brain volumes and regional cortical and subcortical structures. METHODS: A total of 311 patients on the SZ - BD spectrum and 218 healthy control (HC) participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. They were evaluated for ASP using prospective information obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. RESULTS: In all groups, ASP was related to smaller ICV, total brain, white and gray matter volumes and total surface area, but not to cortical thickness. Smaller cortical surface areas were found across frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal and insular regions. Smaller hippocampal, amygdala, thalamus, caudate and putamen volumes were reported for all ASP subgroups. ASP effects did not survive ICV correction, except in the caudate, which remained significantly smaller in both patient ASP subgroups, but not in the HC. CONCLUSIONS: Since ASP was associated with smaller brain volumes in all groups, the genetic risk of developing a severe mental illness, alone, cannot easily explain the smaller ICV. Only the smaller caudate volumes of ASP patients specifically suggest that injury from ASP can be related to disease development. Our findings give support for the ICV as a marker of aberrant neurodevelopment and ASP in the etiology of brain development in BD and SZ.

    PMID: 32772969 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

  • Measuring Personality Problems in Patients With Substance Use Disorders: A Cross-Sample Validation.
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    Measuring Personality Problems in Patients With Substance Use Disorders: A Cross-Sample Validation.

    J Dual Diagn. 2019 Oct-Dec;15(4):324-332

    Authors: Arnevik EA, Pedersen G, Walderhaug E, Lien I, Wilberg T, Hummelen B

    Abstract Objective: Co-occurrence of substance use disorder and personality disorder (PD) is associated with greater functional impairment and mutual deterioration of the prognosis. More information is needed about the extent of personality problems in substance use disorder patients and when these problems can be assessed in a reliable way. The aim of this study was to compare the levels and scale reliability of (mal)adaptive personality functioning in four different samples and to discuss the possible clinical implications. Methods: Personality problems were assessed using the self-report Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP) questionnaire in four samples: (a) 136 patients in the detoxification phase, (b) 187 patients with substance use disorder in long-term inpatient treatment, (c) 1,399 patients with PD in day and outpatient treatment, and (d) a community population of 935 respondents. Scale reliability of the SIPP facets was computed for each sample and levels of personality problems were compared among samples. Results: The scale reliability was acceptable for most of the SIPP facets in both substance use disorder samples. The substance use disorder samples had scores on SIPP that reflected greater personality dysfunction compared with the general community population and at a level similar to the PD population. Conclusions: SIPP appears to be a promising instrument for assessing personality pathology in substance use disorder treatment. The finding of high levels of maladaptive personality functioning in substance use disorder populations challenges the clinical management of the substance use disorder patient group and supports the development of integrated treatment approaches.

    PMID: 31571533 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Publisert 25. feb. 2014 11:43 - Sist endret 8. feb. 2019 06:31