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Forming epistemic and moral norms in medicine and health care

Norms for knowledge production and moral norms change over time in medicine and health care. This influences individuals, institutions, and society at large. Being able to understand these normative changes is crucial for understanding the development of medicine and society. 


To investigate the mutual formation of epistemic and moral norms in medicine and health care.


Conceptual, epistemological, and ethical analysis and development. 


Financed by the project leader's regular funds. 

Topics (issues)

Biases in medicine and health care. Outcomes: 

  • Hofmann B. M. Biases and imperatives in handling medical technology. Health Policy and Technology. 2019;8:377-85.
  • Hofmann B. M. Biases distorting priority setting. Health Policy. 2020;124(1):52-60.
  • Hofmann B. M. Categorical Mistakes and Moral Biases in the Withholding-Versus-Withdrawal Debate. American Journal of Bioethics. 2019;19(3):29-31.
  • Hofmann B. Is there a technological imperative in health care? International journal of technology assessment in health care. 2002;18(3):675-89.
  • Hofmann B., Bond K., Sandman L. Evaluating facts and facting evaluations: On the fact-value relationship in HTA. Journal of evaluation in clinical practice. 2018;24(5):957-65.
  • Hofmann B., Cleemput I., Bond K., Krones T., Droste S, Sacchini D, et al. Revealing and acknowledging value judgments in health technology assessment. International journal of technology assessment in health care. 2014;30(6):579-86.
  • Espelid I., Alanen P., Hofmann B. Evidence based dentistry and ethics. Den norske tannlegeforenings tidende. 2013;123(1):28-32.

Forms of rationality in medicine and healthcare: Outcomes: 

  • Hofmann B. The Paradox of Health Care. Health Care Analysis. 2001;9:369-83.
  • Hofmann B. The first casualty of an epidemic is evidence. Journal of evaluation in clinical practice. 2020;26:1344-6.
  • Vogt H., Hofmann B. How precision medicine changes medical epistemology: A formative case from Norway. Journal of evaluation in clinical practice. 2022 Online.
  • Hofmann B. Fallacies in the arguments for new technology: the case of proton therapy. Journal of medical ethics. 2009;35(11):684-7.
  • Hofmann B., Solbakk J. H., Holm S. Teaching old dogs new tricks: The role of analogies in bioethical analysis and argumentation concerning new technologies. Theoretical medicine and bioethics. 2006;27(5):397-413.
  • Hofmann B. Parachutes for diabetes: Bariatric surgery beyond evidence? Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2012;98(3):406-7.
  • Hofmann B. When risk factor patterns changes due to new scientific evidence – ethical dilemmas.  Oral infections and cardiovascular disease: Bentham Science Publishers Ltd; 2011. p. 101.
  • Hofmann B., Stanak M. Nudging in screening: Literature review and ethical guidance. Patient education and counseling. 2018;101(9):1561-9.
  • Hofmann B. M. Does Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Cause Cancer? The Interplay of Epistemology and Ethics in Radiation Protection. Axiomathes. 2018;28(6):695-708.

Outcomes (other selected publications or presentations)

  • Hofmann B. PET - mer enn et kjæledyr! Hold Pusten. 2005(4):6-9.
  • Hofmann B. PETimetri? Dagens Medisin. 2002:26.
  • Hofmann B. M. Tanketilbøyeligheter og følelsesforføringer i prioritering.  Senter for medisinsk etikk; 2019-10-09; Oslo 2019.

Project start and finish

2015 – 2025

Published Sep. 5, 2022 11:29 AM - Last modified Oct. 17, 2022 9:59 AM