Digital Public Defence: Tommaso Cai

MD Tommaso Cai at Institute of Clinical Medicine will be defending the thesis “Aspects of antimicrobial stewardship in urinary tract infections: Clinical significance of risk factors, deferred treatment, non-antibiotic treatment, revival of an old antibiotic and the impact of guidelines adherence” for the degree of Dr. Philos. (Doctor Philosophiae).

The public defence will be held as a video conference over Zoom.

The defence will follow regular procedure as far as possible, hence it will be open to the public and the audience can ask ex auditorio questions when invited to do so.

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Due to copyright reasons, an electronic copy of the thesis must be ordered from the faculty. In order for the faculty to have time to process the order, it must be received by the faculty no later than 2 days prior to the public defence. Orders received later than 2 days before the defence will not be processed. Inquiries regarding the thesis after the public defence must be addressed to the candidate.

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Adjudication committee

  • First opponent: Urologist, PhD Mikkel Fode, University of Copenhagen/Herlev, Denmark
  • Second opponent: Urologist, PhD Peder Gjengstø, Haukeland University Hospital
  • Third member and chair of the evaluation committee: Professor Christian Beisland, University of Bergen

Chair of the Defence

Professor Tom Hemming Karlsen, University of Oslo


Since the discovery of penicillin, the management of urinary tract infections (UTI) has been based on antibiotics. Antibiotics are able to eradicate infections but in the last years, there has been an increase in collateral damage, such as antimicrobial resistance, that has become one of the biggest public health challenges worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance means that bacteria change in a way that render antibiotics ineffective. Antimicrobial resistance is due to indiscriminate and inappropriate use of antibiotics and low awareness among physicians about the correct approach to bacterial infections. In the last years, the need for a correct approach to bacterial infections and a reduction in antibiotic use have pushed the development of a new concept called antimicrobial stewardship.

The aims of this thesis were to perform a comprehensive analysis of topics related to antimicrobial stewardship in a urological setting. Special attention is given to means of reducing the collateral damages of antibiotics, reduce antimicrobial resistance and improve patients’ quality of life. The thesis is based on nine original papers published in medical journals.

The main conclusions of this thesis highlight important aspects of diagnostic evaluation and treatment of urinary tract infections in everyday clinical practice. Doctors must identify and deal appropriately with patient related risk factors, such as number of previous UTIs, previous treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria, type of isolated pathogens, number of sexual partners, bowel function and hormonal status.

An antibiotic sparing approach can be attempted in line with international guidelines. When antibiotic treatment is needed, prescriptions must be made in accordance with local antimicrobial resistance data and international guidelines recommendations and physicians must always consider the risks of collateral damage of antibiotics.

Additional information

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Published Jan. 7, 2022 11:28 AM - Last modified Jan. 20, 2022 10:52 AM