The NorAMP-Project

The Norwegian Multicenter Study of the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (NorAMP)

The Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMP) was included in DSM-5, Section III in 2013, as a relevant model for future classification of personality disorder, but in need of further testing.

According to AMP personality disorders are defined by two main pillars: 1) Impairment of personality functioning (Criterion A) and 2) description of personality traits (Criterion B). Criterion A is a dimensional measurement of severity and reflects both self and interpersonal functioning. It is operationalized in the Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS) (Bender, Morey, & Skodol, 2011). Criterion B includes 5 personality trait domains and a possibility of individual trait specification (Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012).

The purpose of NorAMP is to evaluate validity, reliability, and clinical utility of the Alternative Personality Disorder (AMP) model in DSM-5 (DSM-5, 2013) with particular focus on dimensional assessment of personality functioning according to Criterion A. The project includes a multi-centre cross sectional investigation and a follow-up investigation after 7 years. The cross sectional investigation is completed and the follow-up is scheduled to start in 2022.

Material and methods

The multi-centre study includes Namsos Hospital, Vestfold Hospital, Akershus university hospital, Lovisenberg Hospital, Sørlandet Hospital and Oslo University Hospital. A total of 317 participants were included in the cross sectional study, among which 35 were "non-clinical controls".

The semi-structured interview "SCID-5-AMPD-1" (Norwegian translation) was used to assess LPFS. Patients were also assessed for personality disorder based on DSM-5, using the semi-structured interview, SCID-II.  In addition, several self-reports were included.


By 2020: 5 completed publications from NorAMP first phase
Completed PhD (Tore Buer Christensen)

Currently: Several publications in progress. Stipulated at least 3 publications in the seven-year follow-up. Current application for funding for a second PhD.

Principle Investigator: Benjamin Hummelen, Seksjon for behandlingsforskning, Avdeling for forskning og utvikling, Oslo Universitetssykehus. Contact:

International collaboration

Andrew Skodol and Donna Bender

NorAMP Project group

The group includes user participation and the following researchers and clinicians from Sørlandet Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Vestfold Health Trust, Namsos Hospital.

  • Tore Buer Christensen, MD, PhD, Overlege, Sørlandet sykehus
  • Tor Erik Nysæter, PhD,  Psykologspesialist,  Sørlandet Sykehus
  • Sara Germans, PhD, Første amanuensis, Institutt for psykisk helse, Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, og psykiater ved Sykehuset i Namsos.
  • Ingeborg Eikenæs, PhD, Overlege/forsker, Sykehuset i Vestfold og Nasjonal Kompetansetjeneste for Personlighetspsykiatri, Oslo universitetssykehus
  • Muirne Paap, PhD, psykolog, første amanuensis ved Universitetet i Groningen, Nederland.
  • Donna Bender, MD,  Director of Counseling and Psychological Services, Tulane University.
  • Andrew E. Skodol, MD, Research Professor of Psychiatry, University of Arizona
  • Geir Pedersen, PhD, seniorforsker , Oslo Universitetssykehus
  • Kjetil Bremer, Psykologspesialist, Oslo universitetssykehus
  • Kristoffer Walther, Psykologspesialist, Oslo universitetssykehus
  • Elfrida Kvarstein, MD, PhD, Seksjonsoverlege / 1. Amanuensis, Universitetet i Oslo og Oslo Universitetssykehus


  • Bender, D. S., Morey, L. C., & Skodol, A. E. (2011). Toward a model for assessing level of personality functioning in DSM-5, part I: a review of theory and methods. J Pers Assess, 93(4), 332-346. doi:10.1080/00223891.2011.583808
  • DSM-5. (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Vol. Fifth, pp. 767 - 771). Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association.
  • Krueger, R. F., Derringer, J., Markon, K. E., Watson, D., & Skodol, A. E. (2012). Initial construction of a maladaptive personality trait model and inventory for DSM-5. Psychol Med, 42(9), 1879-1890. doi:10.1017/s0033291711002674
  • Buer Christensen, T., et al. (2019). "Level of personality functioning as a predictor of psychosocial functioning-Concurrent validity of criterion A." Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, & Treatment: Advance online publication.
  • Buer Christensen, T., et al. (2019). "Evaluation of Diagnostic Thresholds for Criterion A in the Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders." Journal of Personality Disorders: 1-22.
  • Buer Christensen, T., et al. (2018). "Interrater Reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM–5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders Module i: Level of Personality Functioning Scale." Journal of Personality Assessment 100(6): 630-641.
  • Eikeseth, F. F., et al. (2020). "The test-retest reliability of heart rate variability and its association with personality functioning."  11: 1108.
  • Hummelen, B., et al. (2020). "A Psychometric Analysis of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders Module I (SCID-5-AMPD-I): Level of Personality Functioning Scale." 1073191120967972.
Publisert 17. jan. 2018 10:28 - Sist endret 2. feb. 2022 20:03